Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
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Questão 19 1375915USS 2020
CAN A SUDDEN CHANGE IN THE WEATHER AFFECT YOUR HEALTH?
Can a sudden shift in the weather trigger certain illnesses? Absolutely, says Vikash Modi, M.D., a Piedmont
family medicine physician. In fact, climate change is one of the environmental risk factors most doctors
consider when assessing their patients for certain conditions. “Changes in weather are basically challenges
to our immune system and to our musculoskeletal system,” Dr. Modi says. “Our bodies get used to a certain
 climate, and when those things change suddenly, our body has to try to adapt. Unfortunately, sometimes
our bodies have a difficult time adjusting, which can trigger an illness.” Here are six health conditions that
can be triggered by a sudden change in the weather:
“Often we’ll discover that patients are dressing inappropriately,” Dr. Modi says. “They’re not wearing
enough layers or they’re wearing too many layers, and so their bodies get overheated or too cold. That
 can affect their immune response and can trigger upper respiratory infections.” When temperatures are
fluctuating, Dr. Modi recommends dressing in light layers. “Dressing in light layers is incredibly important
to protect from cold temperatures in the morning and at night, and you’re still able to shed those layers in
the warm mid-days or indoor settings,” Dr. Modi says.
Heating and air systems struggle to keep up with fluctuating temperatures, and rapidly alternating heating
 and cooling systems can dehumidify air. Dehumidified air filled with pollen, dust, mold and mildew is a
perfect storm for severe and chronic sinus and throat issues. So, it’s important to change heating and
air filters every six months. “If your filters haven’t been changed in more than six months, they are likely
blowing dust, mold and mildew-ridden air on you and your family while you are at home or work,” Dr.
Modi says. Dr. Modi also recommends purchasing a humidifier to add moisture to the air.
 Cold air can trigger seasonal asthma or bronchitis. People who have these conditions should be prepared
to use an inhaler seasonally to avoid severe and chronic coughing episodes. “There is a physiological
response to cold air that causes your airways to close down and tighten up,” Dr. Modi says. “If you have
asthma, that response can be dangerous. You’ll see a lot of people who have bronchitis, coughing, wheezing
and shortness of breath throughout cold temperatures. So, we need to be a little more aggressive with
 the control of their lung health.”
“Plants get just as confused as people do with the changing weather patterns,” Dr. Modi says. “This means
flowers bloom early and release pollen, which can aggravate people with seasonal allergies.”
As the weather temporarily improves, it is common for families, co-workers, and school children to gather
for group activities. If one person is sick with a cold or the flu, you may see a minor “outbreak” of illness
 following those gatherings. “When large groups gather together, we all need to be a little more careful
about hand hygiene and covering our mouths and noses with coughing and sneezing,” Dr. Modi says. “It’s
also important to frequently clean shared spaces to control the spread of infections.”
When the weather warms up, people are eager to head outdoors. But being extremely active on muscles
and joints that have been hibernating during the cold winter months can lead to injuries. “A good rule to
 remember before jumping into those fun physical activities is to start low and go slow, at least initially,” Dr.
Modi says. “It might take a few weeks to shake the rust off. But it will be worth the wait.”
piedmont.org, acesso em 20/09/2019.
Dr. Modi presents suggestions of what to be done when the weather is hot and cold.
According to him, when it is cold, it is advisable to
Questão 50 1579806IFRR Superior 2018/2
These days, when our slow recovery from recession seems like a full-employment program for pessimistic pundits, it’s great to have a new book from Chris Anderson, an indefatigable cheerleader for the unlimited potential of the digital economy. Anderson, the departing editor in chief of Wired magazine, has already written two important books exploring the impact of the Web on commerce. In “The Long Tail,” he argued that companies like Amazon that faced distribution challenges arising from having large quantities of the same kind of product would thrive by “selling less of more.” Corporations didn’t have to chase blockbusters if they had a mass of small sales. In “Free: The Future of a Radical Price,” he argued that giving stuff away to attract a multitude of users might be the best way eventually to make money from loyal customers. Anderson has also helped found a Web site, Geekdad, and an aerial robotics company. From his vantage point, in the future more and more people can get involved in making things they really enjoy and can connect with others who share their passions and their products. These connections, he claims, are creating a new Industrial Revolution.
In a 2010 Wired article entitled “In the Next Industrial Revolution, Atoms Are the New Bits,” Anderson described how the massive changes in our relations with information have altered how we relate to things. Now that the power of information-sharing has been unleashed through technology and social networks, makers are able to collaborate on design and production in ways that facilitate the connection of producers to markets. By sharing information “bits” in a creative commons, entrepreneurs are making new things (reshaping “atoms”) more cheaply and quickly. The new manufacturing is a powerful economic force not because any one business becomes gigantic, but because technology makes it possible for tens of thousands of businesses to find their customers, to form their communities.
Anderson begins his new book, “Makers,” with the story of his grandfather Fred Hauser, who invented a sprinkler system. He licensed his invention to a company that turned ideas into things that could be built and sold. Although Hauser loved translating ideas into things, he needed a company with resources to make enough of his sprinklers to turn a profit. Inventing and making were separate. With the advent of the personal computer and of sophisticated but user-friendly design tools, that separation has become increasingly irrelevant. As a child, Anderson loved making things with his grandfather, and he still loves creating new stuff and getting it into the marketplace. “Makers” describes how today technology has liberated the inventor from a dependence on the big manufacturer. “The beauty of the Web is that it democratized the tools both of invention and production,” Anderson writes. “We are all designers now. It’s time to get good at it.”
(Fragment from “Makers: The New Industrial Revolution by Chris Anderson”, by Michael S. Roth. Online since 24 November 2012. URL:https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/makers-thenew-industrial-revolution)
Choose the only alternative which shows what it is INCORRECT to say about the text:
Questão 56 1540774PUC-PR Verão - Demais Cursos 2016
Read the text.
June 21st (or 22nd) is the summer solstice for the northern hemisphere*. Solstice in Latin means "sun standing still." On that day it seems like the sun is standing still because there is more daylight than on any other day. It is the first day of summer and a special day for many groups of people. Many ancient cultures had many kinds of ceremonies on solstice. They celebrated light and fire. Many people also thought it was a time for love and growth. Nowadays many places around the world have parades or parties. The great English writer, William Shakespeare, said** whatever you dream on this night will come to pass. So, have great dreams on June 21! And if you are in the northern hemisphere, enjoy the longest day of the year.
* Summer solstice is on December 21 (or 22nd) in the southern hemisphere. June 21 (or 22nd) is the southern hemisphere's Winter solstice.
** in his play A Midsummer's Night Dream
solstice – the 2 times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the earth's equator.
Equator – the imaginary (not real) line that divides the earth into 2 parts.
hemisphere – hemi means to divide into two, sphere means a round object like the earth. Hemisphere means one half of the circle. The northern hemisphere means above the equator or (middle) of the earth.
ancient – very old
come to pass – happen
Adapted from: http://www.5minuteenglish.com.
According to the text, it is CORRECT to say:
I. Solstice means that it looks like the sun doesn't move.
II. Summer solstice is on July 21.
III. Many ancient people celebrated summer solstice with fire.
IV. Nowadays no one celebrates solstice.
V. Shakespeare said whatever you dream about on June 21 will happen.
Questão 27 156235UFU 2° Dia 2016/2
Undergraduate students at Princeton benefit from the extraordinary resources of a world-class research institution dedicated to undergraduate teaching. Princeton faculty have an unparalleled reputation for balancing excellence in their fields with a dedication to their students, through both classroom instruction and independent study advising. Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton.
Disponível em: <https://www.princeton.edu/main/academics/>. Acesso em: dez. 2015.
De acordo com o texto, infere-se que os cursos de graduação de Princeton têm como diferencial característico
Questão 15 187090ITA 2015
Got, got, got, got, got, need
 THE World Cup is still two weeks away, but for children worldwide (plus disturbing numbers of adults)
the race to complete the Brazil 2014 sticker book started long ago. Panini, an Italian firm, has produced
sticker albums for World Cups since Mexico 1970; this year’s version has 640 stickers to collect. Collecting
them is no idle pursuit, however. Getting every slot filled delivers an early lesson in probability, the value of
 statistical tests and the importance of liquidity.
When you start an album, your first sticker (in Britain, they come in packs of five) has a 640/640
probability of being needed. As the spaces get filled, the odds of opening a pack and finding a sticker you
want fall. According to Sylvain Sardy and Yvan Velenik, two mathematicians at the University of Geneva, the
number of sticker packs that you would have to buy on average to fill the album by mechanically buying pack
 after pack would be 899. That assumes there is no supply shock to the market (the theft of hundreds of
thousands of stickers in Brazil in April left many fearful that Panini would run short of cards).
It also assumes that the market is not being rigged. Panini says that each sticker is printed in the same
volumes and randomly distributed. In a 2010 paper Messrs Sardy and Velenik gamely played the role of
“regulator” by checking the distribution of stickers for a 660-sticker album sold in Switzerland for that year’s
 World Cup. Out of their sample of 6,000 stickers, they expected to see each sticker 9.09 times on average
(6,000/660), which was broadly borne out in practice.
Even in a fair market, it is inefficient to buy endless packs as an individual (not to mention bloody
expensive for the parents). The answer is to create a market for collectors to swap their unwanted stickers.
The playground is one version of this market, where a child who has a card prized by many suddenly
 understands the power of limited supply. Sticker fairs are another. As with any market, liquidity counts. The
more people who can be attracted into the market with their duplicate cards, the better the chances of finding
the sticker you want.
Messrs Sardy and Velenik reckon that a group of ten astute sticker-swappers would need a mere
1,435 packs between them to complete all ten albums, if they take advantage of Panini’s practice of selling
 the final 50 missing stickers to order. Internet forums, where potentially unlimited numbers of people can
swap stickers, make this number fall even further. The idea of a totally efficient market should dismay Panini,
which will sell fewer packs as a result. But as in all markets, behaviour is not strictly rational. Despite
entreaties, your correspondent’s son is prepared to tear out most of his stickers to get hold of Lionel Messi.
Fonte: http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21603019-got-got-got-got-got-need-stickernomics Acesso: 13/ago/2014
Marque a opção em que o item lexical sublinhado não remete a uma informação anterior.
Questão 98 958714PUC-RS Verão 2014
INSTRUCTION: Answer question in relation to text.
Eight rules for walks in the country Posted by Tom Cox
“It’s quite an up and down kind of walk,” said my friend
Emma. “Oh,” added Emma, “and it gets a bit blowy up there,
so I’d leave your credit card back here if I were you.” I gave
her a searching look, wondering how a credit card might
 relate to a strong wind. “I took mine up there the other week
and it blew out of my hand into the sea,” she clarified. “I had
to order a new one.”
I fell in love with walking because it lifted my spirit
and took me to parts of my local area that I would never
 have _________ otherwise, but also because there was
something brilliantly ridiculous about the idea of _________
yourself, on a whim, alone, in a bit of countryside you’d never
_________ before, with no real goal apart from putting one
foot in front of the other.
 I’ve never really dressed in any walking-specific clothing
or taken any special supplies out with me, but I do think
there are a few things I’ve learned about “how to walk” in
gentle terrain that might help others. I have compiled some
of the main ones: always be assertive in saying “Hello!”
 to fellow walkers, unless in a built-up area; learn to
fold your map properly; show strange dogs and cows
who is boss; don’t be afraid of dictaphones*; try not to
have a beard, but if you do have a beard, have a dog as
well; try to avoid headwear, unless strictly necessary;
 choose an apt soundtrack for your walk; watch out for
fookwits and loonies!
This last one doesn’t apply specifically to country walks.
It’s just something that my dad tells me every time I see him,
and it’s worked fairly well as a general rule for life over the
 years, so it probably works for walking as well.
Adapted from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/ 2013/sep/11/eight-rules-country-walks
In the text, the expression “on a whim” (line 12) conveys the meaning of
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